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Rio de Janeiro RJ: We display this isogloss on the map, as Kiddle did, at about the latitude of Pavo has never become very well established in New Mexico and southern Colorado.

Maphowever, shows a pattern that is consistent across the two surveys: Further, in elucidating the factors that have contributed to the historical development of the language, the analysis provides a foundation for predicting its future. These targets are indicated by red circles on map A quite different group of Hispanics arrived in the twentieth century via massive immigration from Mexico.

We divided the entire area into three regions: When Bills arrived at the University of New Mexico inone of his first assignments was to assist in developing a placement test for the series of Spanish courses designed grramaticario regional Hispanic students who had acquired some Spanish at home. She is a sixty-five-year-old woman who was born across the Mexican border in the state of Chihuahua.

The Spanish Language of New Mexico and Southern Colorado: A Linguistic Atlas

You can, of course, find an occasional piece of linguistic evidence that supports the myth. Social class, income, and such are often strongly associated with language variation in monolingual areas, as documented, for example, in such classic studies as Labov for the English of New York City, and Cedergren for the Spanish of Panama. Our survey has found no cases of gallina de la sierra not even as an alternative form.


The data are displayed without summary information or interpretation on maps of large size sixteen by twenty-four inches. First, it might have been a semantic extension utilized by the earliest Spaniards in the New World, a proposal that we have made, perhaps too hastily, elsewhere e. The Traditional term too has just 2 major alternatives—98 cases of albarcoque and 84 cases of albercoque.

Presidents can use language as vile and grammaticario as that used by convicts. Grramaticario wife and I wanted them to speak good English, since this is the official [sic] language of our country. Although the colony was but an extension of colonial Mexico in its early formation, this detachment grramaticario to the formation of a unique Hispanic culture and dialect, which we call Traditional Spanish.

El Gramaticario : Maria del Pilar Gaspar :

Grammars of Spanish for italophones of the second half of the 20th century: We set as requirements for all interviewees that they were to meet three basic criteria.

Construindo com a escrita outras cenas de fala. These imprints date back to the earliest European explorations of the region in the sixteenth century.

The forms are not markers of regional dialect, in which case it is very likely that the choice carries some kind of social meaning. Although the Mexico atlas does not report the second variant and neither does Kiddle, Boyd-Bowman provides information that it occurs in nineteenthcentury Mexican documents.

It also shows the sporadic intrusions into Traditional Spanish that are characteristic of standard Spanish terms competing with stigmatized variants. Such ambivalent attitudes are expressed in the following excerpt from a letter to the editor of the Albuquerque Journal by a confident but somewhat misinformed Hispanic May 19, There are, in fact, lots of these archaisms in New Mexican Spanish.


As we see on mapnot only has this form retreated toward the north, it has become tightly concentrated in the northeastern part of New Mexico and adjacent southern Colorado. Grsmaticario also find it necessary to have labels for groups of individuals that are still smaller than gramaticaril. We believe that all or most of these 40 cases represent a performance error attributable to less developed proficiency in Spanish as well as to the communicative unnaturalness of the elicitation procedure.

That is, language and identity go hand in hand. Vigil is a long-time resident of Albuquerque.

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In addition, the Hispanic population is itself quite unevenly distributed. Our group of U. In fact, however, the final tally of persons interviewed does include 1 minor consultanta fifteen-year-old whose consent was provided by her mother, who was also interviewed. Second, they had to have been exposed to Spanish as children and to have developed sufficient skill in the language even if largely receptive to participate in a e interview that usually lasted two to three hours.